Science social sciences archaeology methodology dating

These material remains tend to co-occur at archaeological sites.

Collectively, these traces of the past are referred to as the archaeological record.

science social sciences archaeology methodology dating-79science social sciences archaeology methodology dating-75

The bulk of such material evidence is artifactual, which is anything made or modified by human action.

Artifacts encompass everything from the stone tools discarded at Gona in Ethiopia 2.5 million years ago to the trash discarded yesterday.

Immovable artifacts, such as hearths or postholes, are called features.

Non-artifactual evidence that have cultural significance, such as human, faunal, or botanical remains, are called ecofacts.

Under certain conditions, the techniques described in this paper provide important ancillary data for detecting seasonality, duration, and nature of occupations.

Archaeologists and archaeology students have long since needed an authoritative account of the techniques now available to them, designed to be understood by non-scientists.Archaeologists study long-term change at sites that have been occupied for hundreds if not thousands of years as well as the immediate at "time capsule" sites such as shipwrecks or Pompeii. Many archaeologists also have sub-specializations in the natural sciences such as zoology, botany, and chemistry while others make use of anthropological and historical methodologies and sources. While the most important task is to place finds within a chronological and spatial framework, techniques differ depending on the scale at which the archaeologist is working.The upper end of such a scale is that of the identification of sites within a region.Excavation can be conducted either horizontally (clearing excavations) or vertically (penetrating excavations) depending on the nature of the site and the kinds of questions that the researcher is attempting to answer.Most excavation projects will include a mixture of both.While there are a variety of scientific and other investigative techniques used to reconstruct the past based on this wealth of evidence, archaeological interpretations are constrained by issues of preservation.

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