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Jacques Cassini, creator of the current method, explained: The year 0 is that in which one supposes that Jesus Christ was born, which several chronologists mark 1 before the birth of Jesus Christ and which we marked 0, so that the sum of the years before and after Jesus Christ gives the interval which is between these years, and where numbers divisible by 4 mark the leap years as so many before or after Jesus Christ.

, and as a calendar leap year divisible by 4 (having an extra day in February).

But "the sum of years before and after Jesus Christ" referred to the years between a number of instants at the beginning of those years, including the beginning of year 0, identified by Cassini as "Jesus Christ", virtually identical to Kepler's "Christi".

Consider the three instants ('years') labeled beginning at 1.0 outside the interval.

If writers do not use the convention of their group (historians or astronomers), they must explicitly state whether they include a year 0 in their count of years, otherwise their historical dates will be misunderstood.

Modern astronomers do not use years for intervals because years do not distinguish between common years and leap years, causing the resulting interval to be indeterminate in length, an approximation only.

The modern English term "before Christ" (BC) is only a rough equivalent, not a direct translation, of Bede's Latin phrase ante incarnationis dominicae tempus ("before the time of the lord's incarnation"), which was itself never abbreviated.

Bede's singular use of 'BC' continued to be used sporadically throughout the Middle Ages.

Consequently, historians regard all these eras as equal. This means that between, for example, Thus the year 2018 actually signifies "the 2018th year".

Neither the choice of calendar system (whether Julian or Gregorian) nor the era (Anno Domini or Common Era) determines whether a year zero will be used.

Wherever a modern zero would have been used, Bede and Dionysius Exiguus did use Latin number words, or the word nulla (meaning "nothing") alongside Roman numerals.

Zero was invented in India in the sixth century, and was either transferred or reinvented by the Arabs by about the eighth century.

The Anno Domini era was introduced in 525 by Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus (c. 544), who used it to identify the years on his Easter table.

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