Improvements in dating of rocks and fossils

Benthic foraminifera live on the bottom of the ocean and they have a very strong application in providing depth information about the ancient sediments in which they're living.

improvements in dating of rocks and fossils-5

Whereas benthic foraminifera have a shell that's adapted to either rest on the bottom of the ocean or borrow in the sediment.

This photograph shows a planktonic foraminifera, which has a chambered shell.

Wetter climates tend to produce leaves that are larger than drier climates with the same temperatures.

Using the shape and size of leaves from modern locations with a range of temperatures and rainfall, equations relating margin and size to temperature and rainfall have been developed and these allow these climatic parameters to be determined from studies of ancient leaves.

Once salinities reach certain levels, a sequence of minerals begins to precipitate directly from seawater.

These minerals include gypsum (Ca SO), halite (Na Cl), and sylvite (KCl).

Plant fossils have been widely used in paleoclimate studies.

These studies are based firmly on the distribution of modern plant species and on physical characteristics of those plants that are related to climate.

Foraminifera make their shells out of the mineral calcite (Ca Co3).

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